Independent scientists argue energy at the Earth’s interior is a fundamental—and often overlooked—driver of climate change and oceanic temperatures.
The massive increase in the number of underwater volcanoes detected in the last 26 years, creating many new islands around the globe, undermines the pseudoscience of man-made global warming.
Moreover, a rise in extraterrestrial energy at the earth’s interior also explains an increase in earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
As optimal energy levels are reached, a geomagnetic reversal takes place accompanied by massive geological upheaval.
Geologists know this has happened many times throughout earth’s history. Now climate scientists need to pay heed.
Because oceans occupy twice the surface area of land, earth scientists had long believed that the number of underwater volcanoes was approximately the same as on land.
But the latest oceanographic science proves the actual number of submarine volcanoes is much, much higher.
Up to the 1990s, geophysicists and geologists assumed there were only around 10,000 volcanoes lurking under our seas and oceans. Climate scientists bought into that estimate.
Ever since advocates of man-made climate change have stuck firm on this outdated rough number, believing they could never contribute any significant impact on ocean temperatures, even if all these volcanoes were active.
But around 2005, ocean researchers saw that the number of submarine volcanoes was considerably higher. For instance, Oregon State University (OSU), admits there may be more than one million more!. See: http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/submarine
“If an estimate of 4,000 volcanoes per million square kilometers on the floor of the Pacific Ocean is extrapolated for all the oceans than there are more than a million submarine (underwater) volcanoes. Perhaps as many as 75,000 of these volcanoes rise over half a mile (1 kilometer) above the ocean floor. Technology and hard work by a group of tenacious explorers/geologists have allowed us our first detailed glimpses of submarine volcanoes.”
Nonetheless, while researchers of OSU acknowledge the new science that other mainstream institutes do not acknowledge it may well be the case the OSU number is too woefully short of reality.
The problem is in the following quotation:
“The most productive volcanic systems on Earth are hidden under an average of 8,500 feet (2,600 m) of water. Beneath the oceans, a global system of mid-ocean ridges produces an estimated 75% of the annual output of magma. An estimated 0.7 cubic miles (3 cubic kilometers) of lava has erupted. The magma and lava create the edges of new oceanic plates and supply heat and chemicals to some of the Earth’s most unusual and rare ecosystems.”
It is well-known fact, that there are around 1500-1511 potentially active land volcanoes, with about 500 having erupted in recorded history.
So, isn’t it reasonable to dispute how one million additional submarine volcanoes can only release 75% of the amount of lava produced by 1,500 land volcanoes? There really is no scientific reason for the low-ball estimate.
What is more likely a factor in this modest estimate is political pressure from within and outside academic institutions to keep ‘on message’ in adhering to the man-made global warming narrative.
However, even after NASA was persuaded to admit that there might be one million ocean-covered volcanoes, man-made climate change advocates never wavered.
And in their opinion even if 30% of this huge number of underwater volcanoes are active, it is still not sufficient to have any impact on the temperature of the oceans.
In reality, of course, if only a fraction of these volcanoes were active they would trigger the release of massive amounts of heat and CO2 into the world’s oceans.
Nonetheless, the estimated number of underwater volcanoes continued to rise. Timothy Casey, consulting geologist argued in his paper that three million underwater volcanoes “can’t be wrong”.
His paper was published on June 15, 2014, in Principia Scientific International, titled, Volcanic Carbon Dioxide.
Casey stated that most estimates of volcanogenic carbon dioxide emission are woefully low.
“An enormous and unmeasured amount of carbon dioxide degases from volcanoes, mostly submarine. Lava contains a surprising amount of carbon dioxide. In fact, CO2 is the second most abundantly emitted volcanic gas next to steam.“
Casey added that:
“Carbon dioxide emissions from volcanoes – especially from underwater volcanoes – dwarf anthropogenic contributions (man-made) sources. Unfortunately, some researchers dismiss not only mid-oceanic-ridge emissions but all other forms of submarine volcanism altogether, which is a major oversight.”
Moreover, according to one study, Pacific mid-plate seamounts number between 22,000 and 55,000, of which 2,000 are active volcanoes.
And one researcher even dismisses those few, justifying the omission by claiming that mid-oceanic ridges discharge less CO2 than is consumed by hydrothermal carbonate systems.
However, Casey pointed out, that after surveying 201,055 submarine volcanoes, Hillier & Watts estimated that more than 3 millions submarine volcanoes exist worldwide, of which, Casey estimated, 140,000 are active. See the entire paper here.
Fisher and Wheat believe that the number of hydrothermally active seamounts at somewhere between 100,000 and 10,000,000. Most of these seamounts are so big, as many as a million of them have diameters bigger than 7 km and stand more than 2 km high.
The two researchers also stated that a significant number of the seamounts already surveyed appear to be hydrothermally active.
Seamounts are undersea mountains formed by volcanic activity were once thought to be little more than hazards to submarine navigation.
Today, scientists recognize these structures as biological hotspots that support a dazzling array of marine life.
A map of a seamount in the Arctic Ocean created by NOAA’s Office of Coast Survey by gathering data with a multibeam echo sounder.
Furthermore, Fisher and Wheat estimated that another 1 to 10 million smaller hydrothermal features may dot the ocean floor.
Those “smaller hydrothermal features” stand some 100 meters high. You can read the whole paper of Fisher and Wheat, entitled, “Seamounts as Conduits for Massive Fluid, Heat, and Solute Fluxes on Ridge Flanks.”
One can roughly estimate the amount of energy and volcanic materials released as results of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions ever since the earth was formed.
So, with all those hot materials and energy thrown out into the atmosphere over billions of years, how can the temperature of our planet’s core be hotter than the surface of the sun?
In fact, it is possible that half of the heat at the Earth’s core comes from the decay of radioactive elements.
However, this may not be true since tiny amounts of radioactive elements are located in the crust, while the core is composed of an iron-nickel alloy.
In addition, external energy supply is required to maintain the internal magnetic field.
Moreover, the rate of the external energy supply is the determining factor in the reversal of the geomagnetic field.
Keeping in mind, that the core shifts its direction of the spin when the geomagnetic field reverses its polarity.
However, the Earth‘s magnetic field is made up of two main parts; internal and external.
The internal part comes from two sources; the Earth‘s lithosphere (magnetized rocks forming the crust and the mantle), while the second source – the dominant one – is the liquid outer core.
On the other hand, the external part comes from the plasma currents flowing in the radiation belts (ionosphere and magnetosphere).
Different current systems that make up the Earth’s magnetic field: Credit: roma2.rm.ingv.it
As a result of the interactions between the Sun‘s magnetic field (magnetized plasma flowing from the Sun) and the geomagnetic field, time-varying magnetic fields are generated.
These time-varying magnetic fields in the upper layers (magnetosphere and ionosphere) generate time-varying plasma currents in the crust, mantle and the interior of the Earth (electromagnetically induced fields).
The more intense the time-varying magnetic fields in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, the higher is the intensity of the induced plasma current and the deeper is the penetration to the layers of the earth.
A magnetic signal penetrates deeper into the Earth if its period is longer or electrical conductivity is smaller. Credit: Space.dtu.dk
In other words, an intense magnetic radiation induced in the upper layers of the atmosphere can mean a deeper penetration inside the Earth and consequently, higher thermal activity.
Keep in mind that all dynamic activities inside the Earth, whether in the crust and upper mantle or in the interior, depends on thermal activity and its distribution.
The Earth‘s magnetic field varies on different timescales, and the most important variation is the one that results in field polarity reversals.
Thus, it is obvious that the time-varying external fields are the main factors in the changes that take place in the main geomagnetic field.
The electromagnetic radiation induced in the outer layers is the energy supply that keeps the geomagnetic dynamo process functioning.
The dynamo process behaves like a magnetic induction coil that allows energy to be produced by electromagnetic induction.
When the Earth‘s molten layer (iron and nickel), which make up the outer core, experiencing magnetic stress as a result of magnetic field interactions, this causes a current to flow inside the layer.
This current induces its own magnetic field, which is stronger than the field that generated it in the first place. As the molten metal goes through the stronger field, more current is induced that increases the field even further.
Nevertheless, this geomagnetic dynamo process needs the energy to keep it running. It takes an enormous amount of energy to produce and sustain the magnetic field inside the Earth.
Thus, the magnetic field cannot exist at all if the dynamo does not receive an external energy supply. The system cannot sustain itself by using fuel from the Earth‘s core.
A huge amount of currents – in the range of billions of Amps – go into and out of the inner core. Those currents are what power the Earth‘s internal magnetic field and cause the Earth to spin.
Basically, the inner core rotates because it is part of a vast electric circuit connected to the Sun.
Artist’s depiction of solar wind particles interacting with Earth’s magnetosphere. Sizes are not to scale. Credit. wikipedia.org
However, the energy supply from the Sun can remain more or less steady for a very long time (for many thousands of years), but incremental changes will always take place on upward or downward spiral cycles.
These cycles depend exclusively on the position of the sun in the galaxy. Earth changes during the upward cycle are always enhanced and speeded up by an excess amount of solar-cosmic energy events.
Such as intense solar flares, gamma-ray bursts, interstellar gamma radiations, and cosmic rays showers (high energy cosmic particles).
In other words, when the solar system approaches its highest point in the galaxy as it travels through space on its helical orbit, the energetic cosmic events increase in the number and magnitude and they induce major changes not only to our planet but also, to the sun itself and all the planets of the solar system.
Therefore, any solar-cosmic event during the final phase of the upward cycle would induce extra energy in the outer layers of our planet that would be transferred to the inner ones.
This is why the core temperature of the Earth depends on the total amount of extraterrestrial radiations.
Other energy sources like radioactivity and friction may produce a constant and small amount of current, but the process of electromagnetic induction does not produce a constant current because it depends on external factors.
There can be no doubt, that the increase of extraterrestrial energy, particularly at the interior of the earth, is the fundamental cause of climate change and Earth changes in general that we are experiencing.
And it is obvious, that the energy builds up at the interior is approaching its optimum level.
When the maximum level will be reached the earth will reverse its magnetic polarity and that will be accompanied by an ejection of a massive amount of energy.
The energy will be in the form of huge earthquakes and intense volcanic eruptions, both land and underwater volcanoes.
It is worth to mention, that one of the most important and fundamental questions about our planet is the reason for geomagnetic reversal. Why earth’s magnetic field flips from time to time?
It has flipped many times according to the geologic record. Geophysicists and geologists cannot provide an even superficial explanation to this important question.
Based on the current understanding of gravity it is impossible to solve this issue about our planet. I have raised this question in other articles that I wrote.
Nevertheless, the diffusion of heat from the earth’s interior to the upper layers as a result of external energy builds up is the main cause of the climate change. This is my basic argument over the past few years. Now, this fact is becoming increasingly obvious.
Previously, all the studies of ocean warming have been carried out on the upper 700 meters of water, due to the limited availability of ocean-temperature data below that depth.
But, since around the turn of the century, the Argo array, an international system of robotic profiling floats, has massively increased ocean sampling to 2,000 meters and allowed researchers to show conclusively that ocean warming extends below 700 meters.
In reality, however, the heating of the oceans is starting at their bottoms.
This fact has been proven in the coldest waters of the abyssal zones. Oceanographers measured the abyssal ocean to depths of 6,000 meters by lowering accurate recording thermometers and other instruments to the ocean floor on long cables from research vessels.
During the 1980’s and 1990’s, an international program called the World Ocean Circulation Experiment collected thousands of such profiles around the globe.
Those oceanographers returned in the 2000’s and re-measured ocean properties of those same sites. They detected a consistent warming signal in the abyssal ocean around the globe.
The measuring data showed the strongest warming is taking place in the Southern Ocean, around Antarctica.
The rate was approximately 0.03 degrees Celsius per decade. See, ‘Warming of Global Abyssal and Deep Southern Ocean Waters between the 1990’s and 2000’s: Contributions to Global Heat and Sea Level Rise Budgets.’
Further north, abyssal ocean waters are also warming, although at a smaller rate compared to what the Oceanographers saw in the deep Southern Ocean.
Now, the question that should be asked, is how can a warming atmosphere influence the temperature of these abyssal waters?
These abyssal waters are thousands of meters below the surface. The notion of so-called deep ocean circulation cannot possibly be correct explanations.
It is a deeply flawed notion. Even some mainstream researchers have acknowledged that the deep ocean circulation theory is wrong.
See the following articles. Cold water ocean circulation doesn’t work as expected.
The physical flaws of the global warming theory and deep ocean circulation changes as the primary climate driver.
Nevertheless, in the last six years the real cause for the warming of the global abyssal and the deep southern ocean, and also the massive decrease of ice in Antarctica has become clearer.
Between 2011-2017 a large number of giant undersea volcanoes have been detected around and below Antarctica.
And it seems that the actual number of volcanoes below that continent is even higher than what has already been detected and surely some of them are already active.
Most underwater Volcanic eruptions do not reach the surface but rather melt the ice from beneath and drastically destabilize it. This is definitely the case with the white continent.
This is the reason why it is losing a huge amount of ice per year to the ocean. According to a research paper published in 2014 in geophysical research letters,
Antarctica is losing about 160 billion tonnes of ice a year to the ocean – twice as much as when the continent was last surveyed.
The research paper was based on data collected by Europe’s Cryosat spacecraft. You can read the whole paper at the following link below.
Increased ice losses from Antarctica detected by CryoSat-2
On July 16, 2011, it was reported National Geographic news that Giant undersea volcanoes found off the Antarctic.
A dozen previously unknown peaks were discovered beneath the waves—some up to 10,000 feet (3,000 meters) tall, according to the British Antarctic Survey.
The volcanoes were found near the U.K. territories of the South Georgia Islands and the South Sandwich Islands during a monthlong mapping expedition, which used multibeam sonar to fill in a 370-mile (600-kilometer) by 90-mile (150-kilometer) gap in existing seabed maps.
“It was amazing finding them,” said Phil Leat, a geologist, and volcanologist with the survey. “There were so many of these volcanoes we had no idea about.”
The researchers were expecting to find volcanoes in those territories, but not a one the size of Japan’s Mount Fuji. “It’s also very exciting because you are discovering not just a volcano nobody knew about but a huge one.”
Newfound undersea volcanoes around the South Sandwich Islands are seen in a 3-D sonar image. Image courtesy British Antarctic Survey
A year earlier in 2010 another active giant underwater volcano, was mapped and explored in detail for the first time by a joint Indonesian-U.S. expedition north of the island of Sulawesi.
Watch the Video, the first footage of one of the world’s largest underwater volcanoes, a roiling, 10,000-foot-tall peak crawling with crustaceans near Indonesia.
In 2017 researchers from Edinburgh University have uncovered almost 100 volcanoes below Antarctic ice sheet.
This is in addition, to the 47 that had been discovered over the previous century of exploring the region. Student’s idea leads to Antarctic volcano discovery.
These newly discovered volcanoes vary in height from 100 to 3,850 meters. All are covered in ice, which sometimes lies in layers that are a few km thick.
These active peaks are concentrated in a region known as the West Antarctic rift system, which stretches 3,500 km from Antarctica’s Ross ice shelf to the Antarctic peninsula.
One of the research team said we are amazed,
“We had not expected to find anything like that number. We have almost trebled the number of volcanoes known to exist in West Antarctica. We also suspect there are even more on the bed of the sea that lies under the Ross ice shelf, so that I think it is very likely this region will turn out to be the densest region of volcanoes in the world, greater even than east Africa, where mounts Nyiragongo, Kilimanjaro, Longonot and all the other active volcanoes are concentrated.”
Shortly, after the British team announced the discovery of this massive number of volcanoes below Antarctic ice sheet.
A team of scientists from New Mexico Tech, Dartmouth College, and Vermont Technical College has uncovered evidence of volcanic eruptions in ice cores taken from the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS). A paper describing their findings has been published in Scientific Reports.
The first physical evidence of subglacial volcanism under the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.
In addition to, the above data about the number and eruption of underwater volcanoes, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, reported on January 12, 2018, that a visit to the biggest underwater volcano eruption in the last 100 years revealed a deep-sea mystery.
However, there is no doubt in my mind that the number of underwater volcanoes that are active is far far higher than what has already been detected.
More important, the rate of heat flow from the interior of the earth to the upper layers has increased enormously in recent years.
This fact, is a crystal clear, not only from the numerous methane leaks found on the floors of world’s oceans but also from the emerging of many new islands all over the globe.
Between 1996-2016, 10 new islands have been formed. “Yes, islands are disappearing — most recently the five Solomon Islands lost to rising sea levels. But don’t despair just yet.
For every island that goes the way of the dodo bird, the Earth is busy creating new islands.” Read more here.
And watch the link on how NASA satellites captured the amazing formation process of a new island in the South Pacific, as result of a huge underwater volcanic eruption.
This is the first time satellites could see an island forming. The island is only about a mile long. It was expected to be washed away soon after its formation. Now, more than three years, it’s still there.
Mainstream scientists and media have been aware for a very long time of the massive increase in undersea volcanic eruptions.
But, acknowledging these events would expose the hoax of man-made global warming and climate change.
Besides that, scientists do not have scientific explanations for the increased activity of underwater volcanoes and the formation of new islands.
Jamal S. Shrair is Founder of the Helical Universe and Researcher of Nuclear Fusion and Fundamental Physics at ShrairFusion www.helical-universe.info. He has a B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from Canada’s Queen’s University and an M.Sc.in experimental and particle physics from the Eötvös Loránd University of Science in Budapest, Hungary. His M.Sc. thesis project was an investigation of cosmic muons using a Cherenkov detector. In his post-graduate studies, he joined the faculty of electrical engineering and informatics at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, where he studied surface physics and electron devices. The title of his thesis project is ‘The application of Nanoporous Silicon Layers for Efficient Gas Sensors’.
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